Mystery of square hole in 3500 year old human skull solved

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Science News Desk – The mystery of the square hole in a Bronze Age human skull discovered in Israel has been solved. Researchers have discovered that this hole was made for surgery in the skull of a man who lived about 3,500 years ago. It is also claimed to be the second oldest evidence of brain surgery, known as trephination. The skeleton was discovered in 2016 in an ancient tomb in Megiddo, northern Israel. Then archaeologists found a pair of skeletons. The tomb was also filled with gold, silver, bronze, gems, porcelain and other luxuries. This indicates that these skeletal remains belong to the members of a wealthy ancient family.

Researchers from the US, Israel and Austria analyzed the DNA of these remains. This revealed that these skeletons belonged to two brothers, one of whom had a large square-shaped hole in his skull. This hole was made above the forehead with some sharp pointed object. The bones were cut so finely that smooth edges remained on the bone. This suggests that the doctors of that time made this hole in the brain for surgery.

The pair of bones revealed that both had also suffered from anemia in childhood. Anemia is a disease caused by deficiency of blood. Scientists found out from the marks on the bones that it could be a sign of a serious disease like tuberculosis or leprosy. The first brother is said to have died in his late teens or early 20s. and his brother with a hole in his skull died later, between the ages of 21 and 46. She is believed to have died due to lack of treatment after surgery.

The researchers published their work this week in the open access peer-reviewed journal PLOS ONE. He is confident that the square hole brain surgery could become the world’s biggest discovery by archaeologists. If his theory is correct, the Megiddo discovery would be the oldest brain surgery attempt ever recorded anywhere in the Middle East. The oldest known example of surgery in the world was first discovered in France, where 40 skulls with trepanning holes were found in a burial site dated to 6500 BC.

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